Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to slush and liquid hydrogen for SMES.
When stored liquid or slush hydrogen is used as the refrigerant for SMES,
it is important to consider nuclear pool boiling heat transfer properties.
We used a 0.025 m diameter circular flat-plate made of copper as a heat transfer surface. The heat transfer surface was placed in differing orientations (horizontal upward facing, vertical, and horizontal downward facing) to investigate nuclear pool boiling heat transfer to liquid hydrogen at the normal boiling point (0.1 MPa, 20 K: NBP liquid), liquid hydrogen at the triple point pressure (0.007 MPa, 14 K: TP liquid), and settled slush hydrogen at the triple-point pressure (0.007 MPa, 14 K: TP slush). In the experiments, mass solid fractions of 20-35 wt.% were used, and the critical heat flux (CHF) was verified. Heat transfer was also similarly measured for liquid and slush nitrogen .
The above figure shows heat transfer to NBP liquid, TP liquid, and TP slush in the case of the horizontal upward facing orientation. Heat flux q is represented on the vertical axis, while the temperature difference ∆T (superheat) is represented on the horizontal axis. Also, using the Kutateladze eq. applied to the horizontal upward facing orientation, calculated CHF values q* for liquid hydrogen, liquid nitrogen, and liquid helium are given.
For NBP liquid, the heat transfer coefficient h (h = q /∆T) was about that of liquid helium, while the heat transfer coefficient for TP slush in the high heat flux region fell to approximately 0.5 times that of NBP liquid.
When comparing CHF values q* = 11 W/cm2 (ΔT = 2 K) for NBP liquid with q* = 5 W/cm2 (ΔT = 2.5 K) for TP slush hydrogen and q* = 0.8 W/cm2 (ΔT = 0.8 K) for liquid helium in the case of a horizontal upward facing orientation, NBP liquid hydrogen is characterized by the greatest heat transfer coefficient and the highest CHF.
For transport via pipeline to a remote location, because heat inleak during such transport would melt the solid hydrogen particles, it is predicted that storage would be in the form of liquid hydrogen. In this case, the use of liquid hydrogen as the refrigerant in a SMES system would be advantageous from the standpoint of heat transfer properties.
It is also noteworthy that, as shown in the figure for liquid nitrogen, CHF q* = 20 W/cm2 (ΔT = 6 K) is about twice as large as for liquid hydrogen, while at the same heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient falls to a level of 0.4 times.